Planned measures are specific techniques that are agreed and committed to through the planning permission process. They are used to influence behaviours that reduce environmental impact, road risk and congestion. Planned measures need to be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound) easily interpreted, implemented and monitored.
They are agreed in the Outline Construction Logistics Plan (CLP) during the planning permission process. They are revisited when the Detailed CLP is defined prior to commencing construction activity. If practicable, a commitment to using rail and water should be made.
- The info on this page is part of the CLP Guidance from CLOCS.
- See our London Case Study for practical info and guidance.
1. Safety and environmental standards and programmes
A commitment to follow established programmes will require suppliers and contractors to be contractually obligated to adhere to higher safety and environmental standards.
Operational conditions and site standards for construction supply and waste sites
Many of the HGVs that pose the greatest risk to vulnerable road users are designed to be driven off-road, with a high chassis designed to cope with uneven or soft surfaces.
The majority of off-road HGVs spend only a small proportion of their time operating in off-road conditions. If all construction sites, tips and quarries had level driving surfaces, there would be no need for off-road HGVs to be on our streets. For vehicle operators, improved site conditions also mean less damage to vehicles and reduced operating costs.
CLOCS has developed a handbook to help with the assessment of on-site ground conditions, which provides a one to five rating based on the ground conditions at a particular site (approach angle, rutting and bumps, water, material type). An exemplar site rated five on the scale will be suitable to operate low entry vehicles whilst a site rated one will only be suitable for some N3G classification of ‘off road’ vehicle variants and site plant only.
It is expected that as part of your CLP you will assess your development site, include the rating with the CLP and ensure that operators supporting the site are aware of the rating to allow them to select the vehicle most suitable to the operating conditions.
The CLOCS Handbook can be found here: clocs.org.uk
2. Adherence to designated routes
Designated routes form a key part of the CLP and must be defined and adhered to by all vehicles accessing the site.
Strategic access routes
Unless materials are being transported from local suppliers, goods vehicles will be required to travel to site from other locations. Such journeys should be restricted, unless otherwise advised, to the Strategic Road Network (SRN); best suited to this type of heavy traffic. Use of strategic routes is less likely to create congestion and will help minimise the impact on local air quality. These strategic access routes must be recorded clearly on a map and communicated to drivers and contractors using the CLP and handbooks.
Local access routes
The impact on local access roads may be essential for the last stages of a journey to site. One or more specific access routes on the local distributor road network should be specified as compulsory. You must also show how these link to the strategic road network.
These routes should be discussed and agreed with the planning authority on a site-specific basis, taking into account:
- Transport assessment results
- Local capacity constraints
- Safety considerations
- Potential for multi-drop deliveries where neighbouring sites collaborate
- Likely site access and unloading points
The route to the site should avoid areas that may increase the traffic risk to vulnerable road users. For example, avoid routes that pass:
- Residential areas
- Health centres
- Community centres
- Sports facilities
- Public transport infrastructure
- Cycle Super Highways
- Bus stops
If this is not possible, the area in question must be clearly marked on the map and extra care taken when driving through it.
3. Delivery scheduling and re-timing for out of hours deliveries and out of peak deliveries
A commitment to carefully manage site deliveries and collections by scheduling and re-timing them in a manner that consciously avoids, where possible, the most congested times of the day and in a way that is sensitive to local community. Doing so will reduce congestion, allowing site-related vehicles to operate more efficiently while minimising the risk of collision, particularly with cyclists and pedestrians. Efficient delivery scheduling can also reduce cost and contribute to improved air quality.
Sites are encouraged to employ a Delivery Management System (DMS). This could be either electronic or paper based. Whatever the format, such systems are vital to the coordination of a site’s booking and delivery process. Delivery management ensures that the flow of vehicles to and from site is controlled, ensuring that deliveries are expected to promote safe and efficient use of loading/unloading areas. Delivery Management also provides surety of delivery for critical items, which protects the integrity of the build schedule, and allows for accurate, efficient reporting of delivery activity.
Out of peak
Deliveries and collections made outside of peak traffic times are more likely to arrive on time which may in turn reduce on-site delays. They also have the potential to reduce congestion in the vicinity of the development with all of the associated safety, environmental and efficiency improvements this may entail. Consequently, where possible, off-peak movements are encouraged.
Out of hours
With the right level of support from stakeholders and when carried out responsibly, deliveries can take place at different times selected to suit residents, businesses and operators.
4. Use of holding and vehicle call off areas
A commitment to use holding and call off areas can reduce congestion, unacceptable parking and associated penalties.
Holding and call off areas allow vehicles to wait and/or queue at a suitable location near the site where they can be called to site when appropriate and at short notice. Holding areas can be located on vacant sites, on underused areas of roadway or anywhere near the work site where vehicles can be held with minimal adverse impacts.
Holding and call off areas can only be used if approved by the relevant authority. Inclusion in an approved CLP does not remove the right of the appropriate highway authority to suspend such use if the area is on their network.
- See our CLP Supplement - Lorry Holding Areas for more info.
5. Use of logistics and consolidation centres
A commitment to using a consolidation centre can help reduce and control the number of deliveries to site. Such facilities can also be used for off-site ‘assembly’ of materials and quality control purposes.
The benefits of consolidation centre use include:
- Reduced environmental impact through a reduction in road miles run
- Improved safety as a result of fewer vehicle movements
- Increased security of supply through provision of a ‘storage buffer’ for long lead items
- Reduced likelihood of damage or theft to materials as a result of less on-site storage
- Reduced construction and delivery costs through reduced fuel costs
If a consolidation centre is to be used, the location, the anticipated number of deliveries to and from the centre and the nature of the vehicles involved (for example, the potential use of electric vehicles) should be noted in the CLP.
For example: consolidation centres are mapped in the Freight Infrastructure in London Tool (FIILT) which can be found here.
6. Freight by rail and/or water
Movement of freight by rail and/or water can be a cost effective and efficient method of transporting a range of goods and commodities. It is a sustainable approach that removes construction vehicles from our roads.
Movement of freight by rail or water can reduce the amount of harmful emissions associated with a development and improve safety by reducing the likelihood of a construction vehicle being involved in a collision. Any site that is close to a railhead and/or wharf should automatically consider the use of these modes.
Freight by rail and/or water should be proposed and a feasibility study be completed for higher impact sites if either the site, logistics and consolidation centre, or holding area, are near to a freight siding or wharf of a navigable waterway. Many supply points for asphalt and concrete may also be rail or water fed, and any plan should seek to maximise the use of materials from these locations.
For example: water and rail freight facilities are mapped in the Freight Infrastructure in London Tool (FIILT) which can be found here.
7. Vehicle choice
On certain construction sites, utilising vehicles with greater payloads has the potential to reduce vehicle movements and therefore improve safety, efficiency and environmental impact but only if those vehicles meet the highest environmental and safety standards.
A study was initiated to look into the potential for using heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) with a higher payload to carry bulk construction materials in London, with a view to reducing overall HGV volumes.
To view the study in full, click: Investigating the construction industry's use of HGV types.
8. DfMA and off-site manufacture
Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA) and off-site construction typically entail the application of factory or factory-like conditions to construction projects. This may mean the assembly of a complete building from prefabricated components or the use of manufactured building components (facade, mechanical and engineering sub-assemblies, bathroom suite, kitchen etc.) within a traditional build.
DfMA and off-site manufacture reduce the number of vehicles arriving to site and can minimise the amount of waste generated, therefore reducing the overall environmental impact of the site. Site safety is also improved and costs may be reduced by increasing the speed of construction through productivity improvements.
However, DfMA leads to more abnormal loads which in turn can lead to more disruption on the network and directly outside of the site. Therefore, the benefits of DfMA should be carefully considered and only encouraged where access is safely achievable.
9. Re-use of material on site
The benefits of re-using materials on-site are:
- A reduction in vehicle movements delivering new material to site
- A reduction in vehicle movements removing waste material from site
A simple example of such re-use is the crushing of demolished structures to create aggregate.
Reusing materials on site can help to reduce costs, vehicles movements and environmental impact by reusing materials that are already owned and on site. This reuse also reduces the need for additional materials with the associated environmental and financial benefits that follow.
10. Smart procurement
Procurement of suppliers is an often overlooked means by which the number of vehicle movements associated with a development can be reduced. It is important to select a supplier who can, via their approach to logistics, help minimise the number of vehicle movements. Environmental benefit may be derived through their sourcing of materials, location of their freight delivery infrastructure, willingness to collaborate with other suppliers or use of alternative delivery modes.
Smart procurement can also improve safety through specification of the safest and most suitable vehicles, process and equipment.
Finally, smart procurement can reduce cost as consolidation of logistics activity can create economies of scale and the management of fewer suppliers can be more efficient.
11. Collaboration with other sites in the area
Working with neighbouring developers to realise benefits such as consolidation of vehicle movements, common procurement and shared-waste management can help increase efficiency and reduce negative construction impacts.
The CLP requires a review of other sites in the area, an assessment of their cumulative impact and the impact of any collaborative planned measures considered. Planned measures can be more efficient when incorporated by multiple sites. Possible such planned measures include:
- Joint use of consolidation centres
- Shared holding areas
- Shared cleaning and traffic control services
- Supplier consolidation
- Driver training programmes
- Regular communication and community engagement
- Shared facilities (for example messing and welfare facilities)
- Re-use of materials
Within an OAPF, collaboration is a mandatory requirement and any collaborative agreement should be in line with the requirements described in the OAPF.
12. Implement a staff travel plan
During the construction process your workforce will, necessarily, make a considerable number of journeys to and from site. The workforce will have an impact that varies based on the number of workers, mode they take and the timing of the trips.
Whilst it is not always compulsory to complete a travel plan for the construction period, your CLP should include confirmation that you have relayed pertinent information (for example, the identity of your travel plan coordinator, a site induction with detail of sustainable travel options and site-specific travel information) to the workforce employed on or visiting the site. It should also state the times at which you expect the highest numbers of your workforce to access/depart the site and shift handovers etc. A staff travel plan may have been written elsewhere and if so, the plan should only be referenced in the CLP.
Your CLP should include:
- Confirmation that a summary of local public transport options to access the construction site has been provided to all staff via induction training
- A description of how the site will discourage the use of private transport by personnel employed in its construction
- Confirmation that safe and secure cycle parking is made available at the construction site